In aromatherapy, aniseed essential oil is used to treat colds and flu. That is fascinating to me.
According to Pliny the Elder, anise was used as a cure for sleeplessness, chewed with "alexanders" and a little honey in the morning to freshen the breath, and when mixed with wine as a remedy for scorpion stings.
In Indian cuisine, no distinction is made between anise and fennel.
In the Middle East, water is boiled with about a tablespoon of aniseed per teacup to make a special hot tea. It is called Yansoon.
Builders of steam locomotives in Britain incorporated capsules of aniseed oil into white metal plain bearings, so that the distinctive smell would give warning in case of overheating. A brilliant idea.
Anise can be made into a liquid scent and is used for both hunting and fishing. Some say it can be put on fishing lures to attract fish.
Anethole, the principal component of anise oil, is a precursor that can eventually produce an organic compound, which can be used in the clandestine synthesis of psychedelic drugs such as 2C-B, 2C-I and DOB. Who knew?